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24-Oct-2020 By - team

Different branches of accounting

Responses to the question "What do accountants do?" frequently include mentioning of positions such as tax agents and independent auditors. But, unfortunately, it is common practice to forget about and have a poor understanding of the duties that are done by the great majority of professional accountants who operate in firms.

What are some of the similarities that exist between the roles of an independent director, an internal auditor, and the chief financial officer of a company? All of the people occupying these roles may be experienced accountants employed by various companies. Professional accountants are responsible for a wide variety of other tasks in addition to these positions. These tasks can be performed in a variety of settings, including the public sector, the not-for-profit sector, regulatory or professional bodies, and academic institutions. Their varied work and experience have one thing in common: they are well-versed in accounting. This is the one thing that unites them.

Accounting has three main forms or branches viz. financial accounting, cost accounting and management accounting.
Types of Branches
  • Dependent Branches.
  • Independent Branch.
  • Fixed Assets.
  • Fixed Liabilities.
  • Transfer of Goods.
  • Current Assets and Liabilities.
  • Remittances.
  • Revenue Items.
These branches are located outside the country. They are operated in the foreign country which has a different currency and, as such, question of rate of exchange will arise. These branches may be of: (i) Dependent Branch or (ii) Independent Branch depending on the method of accounting.
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As a result of changes in the economy, industry, and technology, several subfields of accounting have developed and become increasingly specialised.

A number of sub-disciplines of accounting sprang out as a result of the necessity to cater to a wide range of individuals with varying requirements for the accounting information they want.


Branches of Accounting

Each subfield has its specialised application, made possible by various technological advances, the economy, or the manufacturing industry.


Financial Accounting

The technique of documenting a company’s financial transactions in accordance with generally accepted accounting standards is known as financial accounting. It is the first and most basic version of the accounting procedure. In addition to determining the total amount of profit or loss that was incurred over a particular time period, the primary purpose of financial accounting is to provide an accurate picture of a company’s financial status as of a particular date. This is accomplished by determining the total amount of profit or loss that was incurred over a particular time period. This is done at the same time as the computation of how much of a profit or loss was realised during the period of time in question. A corporation’s trial balance, profit-and-loss accounts, and balance sheets are all constructed on the same basis, which is comprised of the principles of financial accounting. The statute requires that these three financial statements be prepared in compliance with its requirements. As a consequence of this, the company’s creditors, banks, and other financial institutions can make use of these in order to acquire a more in-depth comprehension of the company’s current financial condition.

Recording and classifying a company’s transactions are two of the primary responsibilities of financial accounting. In most cases, these data are historical, which simply means that they come from the past.

Creating financial statements that are reflective of these transactions is another part of the process. According to Accountingverse, all of a company’s financial statements, including the balance sheet and the income statement, must be produced per the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).

In addition, the authorities that are in charge of levying taxes are only permitted to use these documents in order to calculate the tax that needs to be paid. The aforementioned pieces of help are merely the most fundamental ones that you may acquire from this accountancy. In addition to these, there are a great many other things to take into consideration, such as keeping track of your bank balances, the balances of your accounts receivable and payable, account-wise summaries, and bank reconciliation, amongst other things. It’s possible that the list may continue on indefinitely.

Financial accounting is performed with the intention of adhering to rules that are imposed from the outside, whereas managerial accounting is performed with the purpose of analysing and making decisions regarding one’s financial situation.


Cost Accounting

Accounting for costs is one subfield that falls under the umbrella of management accountingManufacturing is an industry that often makes extensive use of cost accounting since it is responsible for the management of a large number of resources and expenses. It is a form of accounting that is carried out within a business with the purpose of evaluating its operations.

To properly account for costs, one must first ascertain how much money is truly required to produce a product or supply a service. When calculating the cost, it is necessary to take into consideration all of the factors, such as manufacturing and administrative, that go into the making of the final product. Accounting for costs has as its primary goal the provision of assistance to management in the process of pricing goods and services and the upkeep of a firm command over production costs. In addition, it identifies any flaws, leakages, or wastages that may have occurred during the production and marketing processes. These issues could have been caused by. On the other hand, these condensed explanations of the numerous accounting specialisations may provide an understanding that overlaps with those of other accounting specialisations.

The methods of documenting and analysing the costs of production are what cost accounting is all about. This is what the term “cost accounting” refers to. Accounting Tools investigates how a company’s fixed costs (costs that do not change and are constant, such as rent) and variable costs (costs that change over time, such as shipping charges) affect a business and how these costs can be better managed. Fixed costs are costs that do not change and are constant, such as rent. In addition to this, it investigates methods that might be utilised to improve the management of a company’s fixed and variable costs.

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Auditing may be broken down into two categories: external auditing and internal auditing. During an external audit, a non-affiliated third party examines a firm’s financial accounts to verify that they have been appropriately presented and are in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

Evaluating the manner in which a company divides its accounting obligations, determining who is authorised to carry out what accounting work, and determining what procedures and rules are in place are some of the responsibilities of internal auditing. According to Accounting Tools, conducting an internal audit can assist a company in locating instances of fraud, mismanagement, and waste, as well as identifying and controlling any possible flaws in the company’s rules or procedures. This is one of the many benefits that can be gained from conducting an audit.

Auditing is a subfield of accounting in which a third-party certified public accountant, often known as an Auditor, examines and verifies the company’s financial records to determine whether or not they are accurate and consistent. There are other occasions when the practice of internal auditing is carried out. For example, this is the case when an employee of the same firm or external staff performs regular audits of the accounts and assists management in maintaining proper records for audit reasons.

In the vast majority of countries, the audit and certification of the company’s financial statements are carried out by the company’s statutory auditors. These auditors are supposed to keep at least arm’s length of space between themselves and the company at all times. This suggests that they should not be in a position to gain anything directly from the company in any way, shape, or form. On the other hand, the company at issue shouldn’t have any kind of relationship with the auditors in question. with the purpose of enabling them to independently examine their accounts and report on the status of such accounts. Auditor positions in publicly traded companies are typically filled by the shareholders of those companies. At the same time, the organisation’s management will select individuals to serve in the role of internal auditor. The corporation’s shareholders are the ones to whom these statutory auditors owe the duty of receiving accurate information regarding the condition of operations.


Managerial Accounting

Accounting of this type, which is frequently referred to as management accounting, entails supplying managers with data on the activities of a company. The purpose of managerial accounting is not to strictly comply with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), but rather to provide data that managers require in order to make decisions regarding the operations of a corporation. This is because GAAP compliance is not required for managerial accounting.

The assessment of previous company choices, planning and forecasting, cost analysis, and financial analysis are only few of the components that make up managerial accounting. Therefore, accounting for costs is a sub-category of management accounting.

This subfield of accounting supplies management with information that enables them to perform their duties as administrators of the company more effectively. It helps regulate the business’s numerous operations and make critical decisions for the company. With the use of a variety of Management Information Systems, such as budgets, projected cash flows and fund flow statements, variance analysis reports, cost-volume-profit analysis reports, break-even point calculations, and so on, management is able to make choices in an effective manner.

Accounting for management and accounting for the company’s finances are not the same thing at all and should not be conflated in any way. There is a substantial distinction between the two. Both are exceptional in their own particular ways. The expectations of management in terms of decision-making about the reduction of cost elements and the improvement of profit-making can be met through accounting for management. On the other hand, financial accounting satisfies the needs of shareholders, creditors, and financial institutions to ascertain the current state of the organization’s finances. Documents pertaining to management accounting are shielded from public view and are reserved solely for the purpose of management. As a result of this, members of the general public are unable to have access to them.

These reports may be easily generated with the help of the straightforward online accounting software for small businesses offered by FreshBooks.


Accounting Information Systems

Known as AIS, accounting information systems concerns itself with everything to do with accounting systems and processes and their construction, installation, application and observation. This can involve the administration of accounting software and the management of individuals responsible for bookkeeping and accounting.


Tax Accounting

Accounting for taxes requires preparation of tax returns as well as formulation of plans for next tax seasons. In addition, this subfield of accounting helps ensure that companies are in compliance with relevant regulations.

Accounting for taxes not only teaches companies how to calculate their own income tax and other types of taxes, but it also teaches them how to legally reduce the amount of tax that they owe to the government. Accounting for taxes helps businesses calculate their own income tax and other types of taxes. In addition, accounting for taxes requires a study of business decisions that relate to taxes as well as any other challenges that are associated with taxes.

The practise of accounting for taxes focuses on resolving issues that are related to taxation. It is responsible for a variety of administrative chores, including the preparation and filing of tax returns, as well as dealing with the legal repercussions of such returns, and it also deals with a variety of other administrative responsibilities. Tax accountants not only assist financial accountants in the preparation of financial statements for the purpose of tax reporting to various authorities, but they also work to minimise tax payments for their clients. Tax accounting involves consultancy regarding the effect of taxes on different aspects of business, minimising tax through legal ways, and also verifying the consequences of tax payable on business. This strategy is more commonly referred to as tax planning. There is a significant gap between legal tax preparation and dishonest tax avoidance. In a general sense, tax planning refers to working within the law’s parameters to reduce one’s tax burden. Contrary to this, evading taxes is a criminal offence. If a firm engages in activities with the intention of evading taxes, the relevant tax authorities may bring charges against the company.


Forensic Accounting

This specialised accounting service is gaining popularity in the accounting business and is seeing an increase in demand as a result. The settlement of legal issues, including the investigation of fraud, the prosecution of legal actions, and the resolution of disputes and claims, are some of the primary focuses of forensic accounting.

When the financial records are incomplete, it is the responsibility of forensic accountants to recreate the relevant financial data. This might be an example of decoding false data or switching from a cash accounting system to an accrual accounting system. According to Accounting Tools, forensic accountants are often consultants that perform their services on a project-by-project basis.

Forensic accounting, which is also known as legal accounting, is a process that can be utilised in legal proceedings to aid the calculation of damages or the resolution of disputes. Forensic accounting is also known by its other name, forensic auditing. In order for the accounting to be analysed, it is necessary to conduct in-depth investigations and perform recalculations. Such accounting procedures are often put into place in the event that there are signs that fraud or mismanagement may be occuring within an organisation.


Fiduciary Accounting

This branch of accounting is concerned with the management of property on behalf of another person or organisation, such as a corporation or an individual. The fiduciary accountant is in charge of handling all of the operations and accounts that are connected to the administration and guardianship of the property.

Accounting for fiduciaries includes estate accounting, trust accounting, and receivership (the process of designating a person to be in charge of a company’s assets in the event that the company declares bankruptcy).

It is the practise of maintaining financial records and conducting an evaluation of a firm and its assets while they are in the possession of a third party but are being managed by a different person. For the sake of providing a further illustration of this point, let us pretend that there is a company that has filed for protection under the bankruptcy laws. In situations such as these, the duty for performing the entirety of the accounting function is delegated to an individual or group of people who do not have a direct connection to the company in question. That is precisely what we have in mind when we refer to a specific subject of accounting that goes by the name fiduciary accounting.


Fund Accounting

It focuses on the maintenance of records for the finances of commercial enterprises that are not for profit. Most crucially, individual fund accounts are kept separate for distinct operations such as welfare programmes of varying kinds in order to guarantee the appropriate use of money. if such an organisation has raised “x” dollars to assist in the education of children and “y” sums to assist in the support of widows. Accounting for finances guarantees that the money donated to certain causes is used only for that cause and not for any other reason, without any deviations.

Audit And Assurance


Government Accounting 

This subfield of accounting is commonly used in the process of allocating and utilising budgets for both the Central Government (National Government) and the State Government. Keeping records guarantees the correct and effective utilisation of the numerous budget allocations as well as the protection of public monies.

What Are the Two Types of Accounting?

Cash accounting and accrual accounting are the two main categories of accounting procedures. Either approach is suitable for the majority of small enterprises. However, the accrual method must be utilised by organisations that either fall under the category of corporations or have an annual gross income that is greater than $5 million.



The cash method of accounting is the approach to financial reporting that is the simplest to understand. Revenue is the term used to describe money that is brought in through various means. On the other hand, as stated by the Houston Chronicle, an expense is something that is recorded anytime money is spent on something.



When using accrual accounting, revenue is not recorded when money is received but rather when it is earned. This differs from the more common cash accounting method. For instance, a company is able to perform a service and then send the customer their charge after completing the task. As a consequence of this, the money is recorded in the books despite the fact that the client has not yet paid for the services that were rendered.


Roles of Professional Accountants in Business

An experienced and qualified accountant who is also a professional in business is an essential addition to the organisation. These professionals bring an investigative mindset to their job, which is dependent on the fact that they are familiar with the organisation’s financials. In the corporate world, professional accountants are expected to raise difficult questions, drawing on their expertise and in-depth knowledge of both the organisation and the environment in which it functions. In addition, because of their background in accounting, they are able to take a rational and unprejudiced approach to problem-solving situations. This is a vital asset to management, particularly in small and medium firms (SMEs), since the professional accountants are typically the only members of staff who are properly qualified. This is especially true in SMEs where professional accountants are in demand.

Accountancy specialists in business contribute to the development of corporate strategy, offer advise to their clients, and aid companies in lowering their expenses, increasing their revenue, and mitigating risks. Professional accountants in business often serve as board directors, where they are responsible for representing the owners’ best interests (i.e., shareholders in a public company). In most cases, their responsibilities consist of controlling the organisation (including activities such as approving yearly budgets and providing stakeholders with an accounting of the company’s performance), choosing the chief executive officer, and establishing the remuneration for management. As the company’s main financial officers, professional accountants monitor everything that has to do with the organization’s financial wellbeing. This includes analysing, generating, and conveying financial information in addition to developing the company’s strategic direction and being responsible for its creation. Professional accountants who work as internal auditors offer management independent assurance that the organization’s risk management, governance, and internal control mechanisms are functioning properly. In addition to this, they provide guidance on potential areas for improvement. In the public sector, professional accountants in government develop fiscal policies, which have far-reaching implications on many people’s lives. Accountants shape these policies. Academic accountants are responsible for passing on the information, skills, and ethical principles that form the foundation of their profession to the upcoming generation of accountants.

In accrual accounting, expenses and revenues are “matched,” which means that expenses and revenues are recorded at the same time as revenues. When a house painter receives a task requiring them to purchase paint, the total money for the project and the cost of the colour are noted in the records simultaneously. It makes no difference when exactly the paint was purchased as long as it was.


The Role of Professional Accounting Bodies in Promoting Professional Accountants

The vital mission of representing, promoting, and further developing the worldwide accountancy profession is the responsibility of the many professional accounting organisations across the world. At the national level, the voice of the nation’s professional accountants is represented by the professional accounting body; this comprises all professional accountants working in practice and business. However, the overall standing of the accountancy profession can only be improved when both professional accountants in practice and business are seen favourably by society. This is due to the fact that each of these types of accountants play distinct roles in the community.

As a result of the fact that professional accountants in business are frequently the only members of staff who have received professional training and are qualified in accounting within the organisation, they are more likely to rely on the assistance of their professional accounting body in order to complete their work. They will seek the professional accounting body to provide them with the assistance and resources they require to carry out their work on a day-to-day basis and maintain their current level of expertise. For instance, professional accountants working in company may consult their organization’s subject matter specialists in the accounting body for guidance on how to deal with ethical conundrums. They will also rely on their accounting body to provide regular professional development training programmes for them to participate in so that they can maintain the relevance of their knowledge and abilities.

In the corporate world, certified public accountants are an essential component of every organisation, playing a pivotal role in both the generation of value and the maintenance of development. It is essential to their continuous relevance that they maintain the capacity to continue performing their jobs despite the ongoing changes in their surrounding environment. Professional accountants in business are also the frontrunners when it comes to maintaining the quality of financial reporting and providing the general public with reliable financial information. This is because professional accountants have the training and experience to do both of these things effectively.

The critical mass of professional accountants working in the industry is an essential component of the worldwide accountancy profession. On a national scale, the same principle holds true. Education of the general public on the many functions that professional accountants perform in corporate settings has to be ramped up in order to improve the visibility of these functions. Additionally, professional accounting bodies have a responsibility to pay attention to the members of their organisation who are involved in business and to offer those members with the assistance they require in order for them to be successful in their positions. Their opinions also need to be taken into consideration. If we are successful on all of these fronts, society will continue to recognise the value professional accountants provide to the company. This plays a significant role in determining the overall sustained performance of the accounting profession.

Obtaining an accounting certification in the area, you wish to specialise in is something you should consider if you plan on specialising in accounting. Thanks to it, you will have an advantage over people who do not have certification. You need to take it up a little bit if you want to get recognised since the population is getting bigger and there is a higher need for professionals who can compete

Some of the most famous certifications include the Certified Public Accountant (CPA), Certified Management Accountant (CMA), Certified Internal Auditor (CIA), Certified Financial Planner (CFP), and Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA).



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